Freely Scripted Soul

February 3, 2008

Reinstalling Grub boot loader

Filed under: Software and Technology,Ubuntu — Roshan @ 8:41 am
Tags: , , , ,

REASONS:

 

  • Grub, by default, resides in the Master Boot Record(MBR). When you try to install some other boot loader or try to install/reinstall Windows, the grub information in the MBR will be overwritten. So, Grub might have to be reinstalled.
  • When some/any part of partition information is changed, the grub configuration won’t be automatically notified of it and so, the grub configuration will remain as it is. There maybe many cases in which the partition information maybe changed like when you create an extra partition, which is something trivial and may or may not affect the grub boot loader. However, most of the times, changes in the partition information will result in errors when the grub boot loader is loaded. So, the grub configuration has to be updated and the easiest way is to reinstall Grub.

 

There are many such cases and in these cases, people tend to treat the effect, more than the cause. By this, I mean people tend to usually reinstall Ubuntu or Fedora or whichever GNU/Linux operating system they are using, through which Grub will be automatically reinstalled. But is it necessary? No, Grub can be reinstalled without reinstalling the entire operating system! In fact, Fedora CD/DVD does offer to reinstall Grub if you choose to upgrade your system. However, I have tried to use that option in many of my friends’ computers and it has never worked! I have no idea why it doesn’t work. So I resort to the easiest fool-proof method I know – COMMANDS @ TERMINAL

 

COMMANDS TO REINSTALL GRUB:

 

All you need to do is access the terminal using the installation CD/DVD of your GNU/Linux operating system. Ubuntu installation CD is a live CD and so, when it loads, you can run the terminal from there. Fedora installation CD/DVD offers options through which you will have to choose to upgrade the system using commands(rescue mode).

 

Once you are at the terminal, you will have to access the ‘grub’ shell to change the grub configuration. So, give this command at the terminal:

$ grub

If it says that you don’t have the permission, in which case you will not have logged in as root(as in Ubuntu), give this command at the terminal:

$ sudo grub

You will get the grub-shell prompt:

grub>

 

Now, you will have to find out in which partition Grub had been installed before, so that you reinstall in that partition only. Give this command at the terminal:

grub> find /boot/grub/stage1

(returns value)

It returns the number of the partition in which Grub i.e your GNU/Linux had been installed.

e.g.,

grub> find /boot/grub/stage1

(hd0,2)

 

NOTE:

Sometimes, when Grub has not been installed properly, the file “/boot/grub/stage1” may not exist. So, the output will be “Error 15: File not found”. In such a case, come out of the grub-shell by pressing “Ctrl+c”. Then, at the shell prompt, give this command at the terminal:

$ fdisk -l

Again, if you are not logged in as root, give this command at the terminal:

$ sudo fdisk -l

The output will list all the partitions and it’s properties, including the file system type.

e.g.,

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1   1 654 5253223+ b W95 FAT32
/dev/sda2 * 655 1962 10506510 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda3   1963 3924 15759765 83 Linux

The “System” attribute of your GNU/Linux operating system will be “Linux”. So note down that partition number.

e.g., sda3

Since it’s array numbering, sdaN is mapped to (hd0,N-1).

Just (hd0) will be the Master Boot Record(MBR).

sda1 will be (hd0,0) and so on.

So, sda3 will be (hd0,2)

Now, log into the grub-shell prompt again.

 

Before reinstalling Grub, you will have to notify the partition that your Grub i.e. GNU/Linux is resided in. So, give this command at the terminal:

grub> root (returned value)

e.g.,

grub> root (hd0,2)

 

Now, reinstall grub in the MBR i.e. the returned value without number part.

e.g., (hd0)

So, give this command at the terminal:

grub> setup (returned value without number part)

e.g.,

grub> setup (hd0)

 

Exit the grub-shell prompt using “Ctrl+c”.

Exit the shell prompt using “Ctrl+d”.

 

PS:

You can also reinstall Grub in your GNU/Linux partition, only if this GNU/Linux partition is “primary” and you have another boot loader installed at the MBR(in case of more than one GNU/Linux operating systems) through which you can boot this primary partition. To do that, give this command at the terminal:

grub> setup (returned value)

e.g.,

grub> setup (hd0,2)

January 27, 2008

My 21st Birthday

Filed under: Diary,Flashes from My Pensieve — Roshan @ 6:47 am
Tags: , ,

It has been more than a month since my birthday! I have been planning to blog about it since then, but unfortunately the time did not come, until now.

18th December, 2007

Birthdays come and go, and I have never given it too much of importance. Its just “another” reason to celebrate. This time however it was something different, something more than celebration, something special, something nostalgic, something which I wont forget throughout my life.

A birthday starts at 12 midnight. I had got acquainted to that notion. In fact, it started a lot earlier this time. The number of calls and messages I got was unbelievable. Yes, I was expecting calls, but the reality of it was way out of reach of my expectations. So by the time I slept on my birthday, very late in the night or very early in the morning (any which way you see it) , the happiness in my heart had swelled to it’s maximum size.

In my engineering life, though intended to be a “surprise”(at least initially), it had become a “tradition”, you could say, to celebrate our friend’s birthday by going to his home on that day and wishing him, even if it is on the previous day of the exam; the number of people involved in that “our” had been increasing. So, I was expecting my friends to come. No doubt in that.

My friends came around the time I had expected them to come, and as expected, we had a great time. I could have produced the most powerful Patronus in the world just by thinking of those moments! More wishes came throughout the day. More friends came home in the evening. I was overwhelmed by the amount of care and affection shown by all my friends and relatives. It wasn’t just the amount of wishes, it was the quality of it. I don’t know how to explain the “quality” of those feelings in words. I don’t know what made it so special, but it was very very special. I don’t know how to thank all of my friends enough! I am grateful to all of them. I am privileged to have friends like them, privileged to have each one of them as my friend. I am really really lucky to have such friends.

Before going to sleep on that day, I was reliving that entire day. I guess it was the first time that it struck to me that this was our last year of engineering, and from next year, we maybe in different cities, doing different jobs, finding it difficult to find time to meet. Hopefully, we ll keep in touch with each other, but expecting all of us to get together and have fun as regularly as we are having now is completely unrealistic. Will such days ever come again? There is no definite answer. It was a sweet-sour feeling; more sweet for now.

To know that you have good friends, and to know that they care, is something which can’t be expressed in words. Undoubtedly, this was one of the most memorable days in my life. Thanks to everyone who made it so.

Look at the smiles on all the faces. Purely nostalgic! Thank you for everything that all of you have done, including the picture-perfect photographer!

This is completely PRICELESS!! Hats off to the creators!

For all the photos, click here.

November 24, 2007

Using Servlets in Fedora Core 3

Filed under: Software and Technology — Roshan @ 9:21 am
Tags: , , , ,

All commands and descriptions are CASE SENSITIVE

 

 

STEP 1: INSTALLATION

 

 

First of all, while installing Fedora, be sure to tick the optional packages of “Web Servers” and “Mysql Servers” (or after installation, boot from your CD and “upgrade” your system by selecting the required packages).

Download Java6 and Apache-Tomcat5.5.

Copy both the downloaded files – “jdk-6u3-linux-i586.bin” and “apache-tomcat-5.5.25.tar.gz” – to “/opt”.

Install Java6 and Apache-Tomcat5.5 by running the following commands at the terminal:

$ cd /opt

$ ./jdk-6u3-linux-i586.bin

$ tar -xvzf apache-tomcat-5.5.25.tar.gz

 

 

STEP 2: SETTING UP

 

 

Create symbolic links for the “java” and “tomcat” folders in “/opt” only by running these commands at the terminal:

$ ln -s apache-tomcat-5.5.25 tomcat

$ ln -s jdk1.6.0_03 java

Edit the “profile” file using the following command:

$ gedit /etc/profile

A file will open with the a number of lines in it. Append the following lines in it:

export JAVA_HOME=/opt/java

export CATALINA_HOME=/opt/tomcat

export CLASSPATH=.:/opt/tomcat/common/lib/servlet-api.jar

PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME:$CATALINA_HOME:$CLASSPATH:.

Save and close the file.

Download this web.xml file to your HOME folder (or change your directory to the folder in which you have stored this downloaded file), rename it as “web.xml” and copy it to the folder “/opt/tomcat/conf”:

$ cp web.xml /opt/tomcat/conf/

Setup is done.

 

 

STEP 3: RESTART

 

 

Go to Applications->System Settings->Server Settings->Services

The “Services” window will open. On the left-side pane, one-by-one, “tick” the boxes and click on the “Start” button for the following services: httpd, mysqld

You should get appropriate messages that the services have been started successfully.

Click on the “Save” button to save these settings permanently.

Restart the system for the changes to take effect.

 

 

STEP 4: TESTING

 

 

Run this command at the terminal to start Tomcat: (This has to be done each time you start a new session i.e. each time you login and want to use Tomcat)

$ sh /opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh

The output will show the Tomcat’s environment variables and their values.

To test whether Tomcat has been set up properly, open this link in the browser:

http://localhost:8080

If you get the Apache Tomcat Homepage, it means that Apache and Tomcat has been set up properly.

To check whether Servlets has been set up properly, open this link in the browser:

http://localhost:8080/servlets-examples/

It opens the Servlets examples page of Apache Tomcat. Run the examples on the page. If they execute properly, Servlets have been set up properly.

Copy the source code of the example “Hello World” there. Open a file in your home folder:

$ gedit HelloWorld.java

Paste the contents of the example in this file. Save and close the file.

Compile this file:

$ javac HelloWorld.java

If it doesn’t give any errors and the byte-compiled “.class” file is created, then Java has been set up properly.

 

 

STEP 5: USING

 

 

Run this command at the terminal to start Tomcat: (This has to be done each time you start a new session i.e. each time you login and want to use Tomcat)

$ sh /opt/tomcat/bin/startup.sh

The output will show the Tomcat’s environment variables and their values.

Run this command at the terminal:

$ mkdir /opt/tomcat/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/classes

(If it already exists, no problem!)

Store all your “.java” and “.class” files in this “classes” folder.

For example:

$ cd /opt/tomcat/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/classes

$ gedit HelloWorld.java

A file will open. Write your Servlet code in it. Save and close the file.

$ javac HelloWorld.java

Now to run this Servlet, open this link in your browser:

http://localhost:8080/servlet/HelloWorld

This should work provided your Servlet code is right.

Now, suppose you want to write a HTML file which will use your Servlet program. Then you need to store it in your “ROOT” folder of Tomcat.

For example:

$ cd /opt/tomcat/webapps/ROOT

$ gedit HelloWorld.html

A file will open. Write your HTML code in it, which will interact with “HelloWorld.class” file in the “classes” folder. Save and close the file.

Open this link in your browser:

http://localhost:8080/HelloWorld.html

This should work provided your HTML code is right and provided your Servlet code in the “classes” folder has been byte-compiled(“.class” file).

 

DOWNLOAD LINKS:

Java6 – https://sdlc4a.sun.com/ECom/EComActionServlet;jsessionid=87D3A2EB1CF3330672A9619B88690488

“Accept” License Agreement and click on Linux self-extracting file “jdk-6u3-linux-i586.bin”.

Apache-Tomcat5.5 – http://www.apache.org/dist/tomcat/tomcat-5/v5.5.25/bin/

 

 

 

Click on “apache-tomcat-5.5.25.tar.gz “.

Web.xml – http://www.esnips.com/doc/128015cf-4006-48b9-a640-dcd6db5b7748/web-fedora3

 

 

PS: If something doesnt work, please check for missing or erroneous case-sensitive letters or slashes. If you face some problem and are unable to find a solution, feel free to add a comment here or mail me. I ll do my level best to find a solution.

 

 

PPS: Thanks to Madhusudan C S for the wonderful research🙂

 

November 18, 2007

Using Servlets in Fedora Core 7

Filed under: Software and Technology — Roshan @ 4:07 pm
Tags: , , , ,

All commands and descriptions are CASE SENSITIVE

 

 

STEP 1: INSTALLATION

 

 

First of all, install Java6, Apache, Tomcat5.5 and all related packages by using your installation DVD(while installing Fedora itself or after installation, boot from the DVD and “upgrade” your system by selecting the required packages).

NOTE: Tomcat is an optional package under “Web Servers”. So click on “Web Servers” and then on “Option Packages”. Browse the list and “tick” all Tomcat related packages.

 

 

STEP 2: SETTING UP

 

 

Edit the “.bashrc” file using the following command:

$ gedit $HOME/.bashrc

A file will open with the a number of lines in it. Append the following lines in it:

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/share/java

export CATALINA_HOME=/etc/tomcat5

export CLASSPATH=.:/var/lib/tomcat5/common/lib/[servlet].jar

PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME:$CATALINA_HOME:$CLASSPATH:.

Save and close the file.

Download this web.xml file to your HOME folder(or change your directory to the folder in which you have stored this downloaded file), rename it as “web.xml” and copy it to the folder “/etc/tomcat5”:

$ cp web.xml /etc/tomcat5/

Setup is done.

 

 

STEP 3: RESTART

 

 

Go to System->Administration->Server Settings->Services

The “Services” window will open. On the left-side pane, one-by-one, “tick” the boxes and click on the “Start” button for the following services: httpd, mysqld, tomcat5

You should get appropriate messages that the services have been started successfully.

Click on the “Save” button to save these settings permanently.

Restart the system for the changes to take effect.

 

 

STEP 4: TESTING

 

 

To test whether Tomcat has been set up properly, open this link in the browser:

http://localhost:8080

If you get the Apache Tomcat Homepage, it means that Apache and Tomcat has been set up properly.

To check whether Servlets has been set up properly, open this link in the browser:

http://localhost:8080/servlets-examples/

It opens the Servlets examples page of Apache Tomcat. Run the examples on the page. If they execute properly, Servlets have been set up properly.

Copy the source code of the example “Hello World” there. Open a file in your home folder:

$ gedit HelloWorld.java

Paste the contents of the example in this file. Save and close the file.

Compile this file:

$ javac HelloWorld.java

If it doesn’t give any errors and the byte-compiled “.class” file is created, then Java has been set up properly.

 

 

STEP 5: USING

 

 

Store all your “.java” and “.class” files this “classes” folder:

/var/lib/tomcat5/webapps/servlets-examples/WEB-INF/classes

For example:

$ cd /var/lib/tomcat5/webapps/servlets-examples/WEB-INF/classes

$ gedit HelloWorld.java

A file will open. Write your Servlet code in it. Save and close the file.

$ javac HelloWorld.java

Before running it, you need to TWEAK the “web.xml” file. Run this command at the terminal:

$ gedit /var/lib/tomcat5/webapps/servlets-examples/WEB-INF/web.xml

Click on the “Replace” button or press “Ctrl+H” from the keyboard.

You need to replace all instances of “HelloWorldExample” with your filename i.e. “HelloWorld”.

So enter “HelloWorldExample” in “Search For” box and “HelloWorld” in “Replace with” box and click “Replace All”.

Save and close the file.

IMPORTANT: This TWEAKING is necessary for ONLY the first time you are executing a Servlet in your system. Once you tweak this file and execute your Servlet successfully, just FORGET about this file. (I don’t quite understand the logic behind this. It quite illogical! However, servlets work only if you tweak web.xml in this way! Maybe a bug in Fedora7😉 )

Now to run this Servlet, open this link in your browser:

http://localhost:8080/servlets-examples/servlet/HelloWorld

This should work provided your Servlet code is right.

Now, suppose you want to write a HTML file which will use your Servlet program. Then you need to store it in your “servlets-examples” folder of Tomcat.

For example:

$ cd /var/lib/tomcat5/webapps/servlets-examples

$ gedit HelloWorld.html

A file will open. Write your HTML code in it, which will interact with “HelloWorld.class” file in the “classes” folder. Save and close the file.

Open this link in your browser:

http://localhost:8080/servlets-examples/HelloWorld.html

This should work provided your HTML code is right and provided your Servlet code in the “classes” folder has been byte-compiled(“.class” file).

 

DOWNLOAD LINK:

Web.xml – http://www.esnips.com/doc/ca71aa2c-ec61-4fbb-8b0e-85a670ef6c2f/web-fedora7

 

 

 

PS: If something doesnt work, please check for missing or erroneous case-sensitive letters or slashes. If you face some problem and are unable to find a solution, feel free to add a comment here or mail me. I ll do my level best to find a solution.

 

 

PPS: Thanks to Uday S Athreya for the wonderful research🙂

 

Using Servlets in Ubuntu Gutsy Gibbon

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 3:48 pm
Tags: , , , , ,

All commands and descriptions are CASE SENSITIVE

 

 

STEP 1: INSTALLATION

 

 

First of all, install Java6, Apache, Tomcat5.5 and all related packages:

 

Use Synaptic Manager(recommended)

OR

Run these following commands at the terminal:

$ sudo apt-get install apache2-mpm-prefork apache2-common apache2-utils

$ sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk tomcat5.5 tomcat5.5-admin tomcat5.5-webapps

$ sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-jk

 

 

STEP 2: SETTING UP

 

 

Run this command at the terminal:

$ sudo a2enmod

Then a prompt for a module comes. There type “jk” and enter:

Module name? jk

Prompt comes back.

Edit the “jk.load” file using the following command:

$ sudo gedit /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/jk.load

A file will open with the following line in it:

LoadModule jk_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_jk.so

Append the following lines in it:

JkWorkersFile /etc/apache2/workers.properties

JkLogFile /var/log/apache2/mod_jk.log

JkLogLevel debug

JkLogStampFormat “[%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y] “

JkMount /jsp-examples worker1

JkMount /jsp-examples/* worker1

JkMount /servlets-examples worker1

JkMount /servlets-examples/* worker1

Save and close the file.

Edit the “workers.properties” file using the following command:

$ sudo gedit /etc/apache2/workers.properties

An empty file will open. There paste these contents:

workers.tomcat_home=/usr/share/tomcat5

workers.java_home=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun

ps=/

worker.list=worker1

worker.worker1.port=8009

worker.worker1.host=localhost

worker.worker1.type=ajp13

worker.worker1.lbfactor=1

Save and close the file.

Edit the “environment” file using the following command:

$ sudo gedit /etc/environment

A file will open with the following lines in it:

PATH=”/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games”

LANG=”en_IN.UTF-8″

LANGUAGE=”en_IN:en”

Append the following lines in it:

CLASSPATH=.:/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun/bin:/usr/share/tomcat5.5/common/lib/servlet-api.jar

JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun

Save and close the file.

Edit the “.bashrc” file using the following command:

$ gedit $HOME/.bashrc

A file will open with a number of lines in it. Append the following lines in it:

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun

export CATALINA_HOME=/usr/share/tomcat5.5

export CLASSPATH=/usr/share/tomcat5.5/common/lib/servlet-api.jar

export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin:$CLASSPATH:$CATALINA_HOME

Save and close the file.

Download this web.xml file to your HOME folder(or change your directory to the folder in which you have stored this downloaded file), rename it as “web.xml” and run this command at the terminal:

$ sudo cp web.xml /etc/tomcat5.5/

Setup is done.

 

 

STEP 3: RESTART

 

 

Restart Apache and Tomcat by running the following commands at the terminal:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop

$ sudo /etc/init.d/tomcat5.5 stop

$ sudo /etc/init.d/tomcat5.5 start

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 start

Restart the system for the changes to take effect.

 

 

STEP 4: TESTING

 

 

To test whether Tomcat has been set up properly, open this link in the browser:

http://localhost:8180

If you get the Apache Tomcat Homepage, it means that Apache and Tomcat has been set up properly.

To check whether Servlets has been set up properly, open this link in the browser:

http://localhost:8180/servlets-examples/

It opens the Servlets examples page of Apache Tomcat. Run the examples on the page. If they execute properly, Servlets have been set up properly.

Copy the source code of the example “Hello World” there. Open a file in your home folder:

$ gedit HelloWorld.java

Paste the contents of the servlet-example in this file. Save and close the file.

Compile this file:

$ javac HelloWorld.java

If it doesn’t give any errors and the byte-compiled “.class” file is created, then Java has been set up properly.

 

 

STEP 5: USING

 

 

Run this command at the terminal:

$ sudo mkdir /usr/share/tomcat5.5-webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/classes/

(If it already exists, no problem!)

Store all your “.java” and “.class” files this “classes” folder.

For example:

$ cd /usr/share/tomcat5.5-webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/classes/

$ sudo gedit HelloWorld.java

PS: It is a MUST to use “sudo” before each command as this folder is “writable” only with administrative privileges(Instead of typing it each time, you can also use the super-user shell by running the command “su”)

A file will open. Write your Servlet code in it. Save and close the file.

$ sudo javac HelloWorld.java

Now to run this Servlet, open this link in your browser:

http://localhost:8180/servlet/HelloWorld

This should work provided your Servlet code is right.

Now, suppose you want to write a HTML file which will use your Servlet program. Then you need to store it in your “ROOT” folder of Tomcat.

For example:

$ cd /usr/share/tomcat5.5-webapps/ROOT

$ sudo gedit HelloWorld.html

A file will open. Write your HTML code in it, which will interact with the “HelloWorld.class” file in the “classes” folder. Save and close the file.

Open this link in your browser:

http://localhost:8180/HelloWorld.html

This should work provided your HTML code is right and provided your Servlet code in the “classes” folder has been byte-compiled(“.class” file).

 

DOWNLOAD LINK:

Web.xml – http://www.esnips.com/doc/997deb96-203b-42fd-85aa-755be8ca5244/web-ubuntu

 

 

 

PS: If something doesnt work, please check for missing or erroneous case-sensitive letters or slashes. If you face some problem and are unable to find a solution, feel free to add a comment here or mail me. I ll do my level best to find a solution.

 

 

PPS: Thanks to Madhusudan C S for the wonderful research🙂

 

May 30, 2007

Ubuntu without Internet Connection or Full package CD/DVDs

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 2:15 am

For those of you who neither have internet connection in your PC nor have CD/DVD package repositories:

 

Go to your friend’s or someone’s home where they have installed such packages. The packages will be in the folder “/var/cache/apt/archives”. Copy it to a pen-drive, whose name is say “Roshan”. This removable media will be mounted in the drive “/media/Roshan”. You can check their paths when you open it for browsing by clicking on the “location” icon.

 

 

 

Now, give this command in the terminal of your friend’s system:

sudo cp -R /var/cache/apt/archives /media/Roshan

Wait for it to copy. It will take a lot of time. Preferably, don’t run a lot of other applications. To check whether it is copying or not, you can check whether the disk(your pendrive) free space is decreasing or not. Once the shell prompt is returned in the terminal, it means that the copy is complete.

 

In your home, give these commands in the terminal:

cd /media/Roshan/archives

sudo cp -R * /var/cache/apt/archives

Now, if you want to install all the packages your friend has, give this command:

sudo dpkg -i *

However, if you want to install just selected packages(not have enough space in your system or something like that), give this command:

sudo apt-get update

Then, go to Synaptic Package Manager and install the packages you want.

Automatix and Easyubuntu

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 2:14 am

AUTOMATIX

 

Automatix is a graphical interface for automating the installation of the most commonly requested applications in Debian based Linux operating systems.

 

In other words, it a sort of package manager similar to Synaptic Package Manager with additional softwares(proprietary softwares). The disadvantage here is that unlike Synaptic, it doesn’t provide the amount of download or the space needed for installation before it starts downloading and installing, and also, it doesn’t provide the option of installing from CD or DVD. So be wary of the number of packages you are installing at once.

 

Automatix2 can be downloaded and installed from Synaptic Package Manager. If not, download it HERE


Double-click(run) the downloaded “.deb” file for it to be installed.

 

Once installed, launch Automatix2 (Applications -> System Tools -> Automatix)

 

 

Click on “Show KDE apps”.

 

The left-side menu lists the different categories of applications and the right-side menu lists the applications in that category.

 

Tick the square boxes next to the applications you want to install, and click “Start” for it to start downloading and installing.

 

Here is the LIST of softwares that I would recommend:

  • GnomeBaker & K3b – CD/DVD writers for GNOME & KDE environments respectively(you can install and use K3b even in GNOME environment, like I am doing)
  • Gaim – IM(instant messaging) chat client through which you can log into ALL your accounts simultaneously like – yahoo/gmail/msn/anything else(even 2 yahoo accounts simultaneously!!)
  • Xchat – A popular IRC (Internet Relay Chat) client.
  • AUD-DVD Codecs, Flash Player, Mplayer and FF Plug-in, Multimedia Codecs – Necessary for different types of audio and video files to run
  • Crossover Professional – Proprietary software that can be used to install and run Windows applications like MS Office, World of Warcraft
  • RealPlayer, Google Earth, Google Picasa – Versions for linux
    Note: Google Picasa version for linux doesn’t have web album uploading option as of now. They are still developing it. However, if you feel that web uploading is necessary(like me), then use “wine” to install the windows version of picasa – click HERE for help on that. http://picasa.google.com/linux http://picasa.google.com/linux/faq.html http://groups.google.com/group/Google-Labs-Picasa-for-Linux/browse_thread/thread/b97720fec4e8ed70
  • Automatix read/write NTFS and FAT32 mounter – Cool feature which automatically mounts all local NTFS and FAT32 partitions(Windows partitions) and makes them writable(which by default will be read-only in Ubuntu)
  • Ctrl-Alt-Del, Extra fonts, Nautilus Scripts – Nice features
  • OpenOffice Clipart – Installs clipart in OpenOffice.
  • GNOME/KDE Security Suite – ClamAV AntiVirus and Firewall

 

EASYUBUNTU

 

The aim of this project is to make your (K/X/Ed)Ubuntu machine (Running on PPC, x86 or x86_64) equipped with commonly requested software, such as codecs to play MP3’s, DVDs, programs for talking over the Internet (VoIP software), and a selection of other useful programs and applications, especially those that are otherwise demanding to install and/or obtain.

In other words, its also a package manager with useful features.

 

Easyubuntu can be downloaded and installed from Synaptic Package Manager. If not, download it HERE

 

Double-click(run) the downloaded “.deb” file for it to be installed.

 

Launch Easyubuntu (Applications -> System Tools -> Easyubuntu)

 

 

Click “system” tab and “tick” the Repository list and the Fonts square boxes. Tick all square boxes in other tabs, and click “Ok” for it to start downloading and installing.

 

Synaptic Package Manager

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 2:14 am

One of the coolest features of Ubuntu is the Synaptic Package Manager (System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager). You needn’t worry about installation CDs (different CDs for different softwares) or about commands to download and install them; This software performs those tasks on your behalf. All you have to do is “Mark” all the packages you want to be installed and “Apply” them. The manager will download those packages from repositories and install them.

 

Launch Synaptic Package Manager (System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager)

 

 

The left-side menu lists the different categories of packages and the right-side menu lists the packages in that category. Unless you want to be very specific, use “All” on the left-side menu.

 

If you have any CD or DVD which contains packages, load them and Synaptic Package Manager will automatically ask whether it has to create a repository of it, and it will suggest a name for that CD or DVD. Once it adds this CD or DVD to it’s repository, it will ask for that CD or DVD if you are trying to install any package that is in that CD or DVD.

 

Before you install a software, you need to know this: Synaptic Package Manager lists 4 kinds of software.

Go to (Settings -> Repositories). A window will be opened.

 

Tick all the 4 kinds of a software – main, universe, restricted, multiverse – to have the best usage of packages. You can tick the “Source code” option if you are interested to look at the source codes of all open source softwares. The Manager will download them along with the software.

Close that window and then click “Reload” in the Synaptic Manager Window.

 

Now, click “Search”. Synaptic provides the most exhaustive search. It searches the complete list of packages present in ALL the repositories you have enabled (internet sites and CD/DVDs).

 

synaptic-find.png

 

Observe “Look in: Description and Name” which means that it searches not just in the name of the packages but also in the description of the packages, which is very useful. “Description and Name” is the most effective criteria for search. You can try out the other criteria if you are interested.

Once you click that, it generates the list of search-related packages on the right.

 

Instead of searching, if you know a package’s name, say “beryl”, click “All” on the left-side menu and then click any of packages on the right-side menu without marking them. Now, start typing “beryl”. It jumps to the first word having it’s starting letters as the letters you have typed.

 

 

Once you find the required package, right-click on it and “Mark” it for installation.

 

Certain packages require other packages to also be installed. The manager will ask for installing such dependencies if it is applicable, in a separate window. Some may have negative dependencies too and the manager will ask for uninstalling such packages.

 

 

Mark” them too.

 

In this way, “Mark” all the packages you want to install, one-by-one. Once you are done, you can click “Apply”’. A window will be opened which lists all the packages that you are asking the Manager to install/uninstall/reinstall, the amount which it has to download and the space it requires in the system to install all those packages.

 

 

If you click “Apply”, the Manager will download those packages from the net or ask you for the required CD or DVD, and install them.

 

You can also store these markings so that it can be installed at a later time(at at time when you have free downloads).

Go to (File -> Save markings) and save those markings by giving a name say ‘markings’. When you want to install them, go to (File -> Read markings), open tat ‘markings’ and click “Apply”.

 

 

 

Here is the LIST of softwares that I would recommend:

  • Amarok – Versatile and easy to use audio player
  • Anjuta – IDE for C/C++
  • Automatix2Package manager to install commonly requested softwares
  • Beryl and all related packages and plug-ins – Composite window manager, decorator and theme support. It brings 3D desktop visual effects; Install all plug-ins associated with it for the best result.
  • Bison – A parser generator that is compatible with YACC
  • Blender – Very fast and versatile 3D modeller/renderer
  • Build-essential – Informational list of build-essential packages (necessary for programmers and developers)
  • Easyubuntu – Package manager to install commonly requested softwares
  • Emacs – Extensible self-documenting text editor
  • Emerald and Emerald themes – Decorator for Beryl and it’s themes
  • Firefox and all related packages and plug-ins – The Ultimate Browser
  • Flex – A fast lexical analyzer generator
  • VLC Player – VLC is the VideoLAN project’s media player. It plays MPEG, MPEG2, MPEG4, DivX, MOV, WMV, QuickTime, mp3, Ogg/Vorbis files, DVDs, VCDs, and multimedia streams from various network sources
  • Wine – Microsoft Windows Compatibility Layer (Binary Emulator and Library) through which you can execute some “.exe” files
  • Xine – A skin based media player that can play audio/video formats like MPEG1/2, some AVI and Quicktime files, some network streaming methods and disc based media (VCD, SVCD, DVD)

Mounting Drives in Ubuntu

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 2:13 am

All local drives including NTFS and FAT32 partitions(Windows partitions) will be mounted automatcially as the user logs in. Any removable media like CD/DVD/pendrive will also be mounted automatically when it is inserted into the drive.

 

All the drives will be mounted onto the drive “/media” i.e. if say your pendrive name is “Roshan”, then it’s path would be “/media/Roshan”. You can browse all your drives from the Desktop or from the (Places) Menu.

 

 

 

 

When you want unmount(or eject) it, right-click on that drive in the Desktop or the File Browser and click “Unmount volume”.

 

 

If you unmount local drives including NTFS and FAT32 partitions(Windows partitions) , they will be unmounted only for that particular session. If you want to “hide” a particular drive i.e. Suppose you don’t want a drive to be mounted when you are in Ubuntu permanently, give this command at the terminal:

sudo gedit /etc/fstab

A window will be opened. “fstab” is a file which contains the static file system information.

 

 

You can observe the code, understand it and change/customize it as you want; precisely the advantage of FREE SOFTWARE. However, unless you are an expert programmer/developer, don’t go too much into meddling with it.

 

Now, to “hide” a drive, first learn its path from the File Browser. Consider the drive named “DRV1VOL5”.

 

 

Its path is “/media/sda6”. Then, just comment that line in the “fstab” file which contains information about that drive. Observe that in the “fstab” file, “/media/sda6” is present in the line no. 22. So comment that line. To comment a line, add a “#” at the start of the line.

 

 

If you observe you see that there are 2 paths associated with a particular drive say “DRV1VOL5”, one is “/dev/sda6” which contains the DEVICE file for that drive and the other is “/media/sda6” which is where actually that drive will be mounted.

 

By default, all local drives including NTFS and FAT32 partitions(Windows partitions) will be READ-ONLY, that is you won’t be able to write any file into it. To make these drives WRITABLE, install “Automatix read/write NTFS and FAT32 Mounter” using “Automatix2”.

Using Root Privileges in Ubuntu

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 2:13 am

By default, Ubuntu doesn’t allow the user to log-in as “root” (administrator). However, some tasks like installation require root privileges.

 

First of all, during installation of Ubuntu, you will not have specified the “root” password. So first you need to change that. Go to (System -> Administration -> Users and Groups)

 

 

Click on “root” account and then click “Properties”.

 

 

Observe in “Set password by hand” that a random 8 character password has been generated. This will be done everytime you come to this screen. So, now change it to the password you want and click “OK”. Close the “Users and Groups” window.

 

You can use root privileges in 2 ways:

  1. By executing commands in the terminal

  2. By enabling “root” log-in

 

I prefer to use commands as it is a cool and powerful method; a method which has plenty to offer in terms of learning. However, if you feel it is difficult to use commands, you can enable “root” log-in (which isn’t recommended).

 

A word about commands in the terminal: commands and arguments are CASE-SENSITIVE i.e. a folder named “roshan” is absolutely different from a folder name “Roshan”. This is the reason why, by default folder names are in lower-case and most users prefer it that way.

 

To use “root” privilege for any command in the terminal, just prefix “sudo” before the command which means “do as super user/root/admin”.

e.g.,

sudo apt-get install beryl ” will download and install “beryl” package

sudo dpkg -i * ” will unpack and install all the packages in the current directory

 

Suppose you have a series of commands to execute using root privileges, then you can log-in to the super-user shell by giving the “su” command at the terminal:

su

Now, execute all the commands normally.

e.g.,

apt-get upgrade ” which will check for package upgrades

dpkg -i *

Once you are done, you can exit super-user shell, by pressing “ctrl+d” or by typing “exit”. You can even close the terminal directly if you want.

 

 

If you very lazy to type “su”, you can enable “root terminal” by customising the main menu, where all the commands you type will be performed with root privileges. By default, “root terminal” will be hidden in the (Applications -> System Tools). To activate it, you need to customise the Main Menu. To know more about customising Main Menu, click HERE

 

To enable “root” log-in, launch Login Window (System -> Administration -> Login Window)

 

 

Go to “Security” tab and tick “Allow local system administrator window login”. Close the window.

 

From next time, you can log-in using “root” username and password and perform all tasks with root privileges.

 

Basics of Ubuntu

Filed under: Ubuntu — Roshan @ 2:13 am

Official Ubuntu Site

 

Download Ubuntu

 

Ubuntu is becoming very popular mainly since it is very simple and easy to use. The only obstacle a NEW technology faces is the problem people face in getting acquainted to it.

 

If you aren’t yet comfortable with Ubuntu, here are some of the basic things that you need to know.

If you are comfortable, good; still, here are some of the basic things that you need to know.

 

To get started, explore the (System -> Preferences) menu and try changing very basic things like desktop background and screensaver; explore (Places) menu; and explore (Applications -> Accessories) menu which has some really cool features like screenshot and disk usage analyzer.

 

 

Start-up Sessions:

 

You would feel the necessity to have a few programs to start-up every time you log-in. Preferable start-up programs are Beryl-Manager, Gaim, Amarok, etc.

 

Go to (System -> Preferences -> Sessions)

 

 

In the tab “Startup Programs”, click on “New” to the right.

 

new-startup-program.png

 

Type “Beryl-Manager” as the name for that start-up program and “beryl-manager” as the command for that. Then click “OK”. Similarly other programs can be added at start-up with commands like “gaim”, “amarok”, etc.

 

 

 

 

Root Privileges:

 

By default, Ubuntu doesn’t allow the user to log-in as “root” (administrator). However, some tasks like installation require root privileges.

 

Click HERE for help on using root privileges.

 

 

Configuring Internet:

 

If while installing Ubuntu, your modem is working i.e. if you are connected to the net, your network connections will automatically be configured. You can also configure it later.

 

Launch “Network” from (System -> Adminstration -> Network) or left-click on the network icon next to the sound icon in the sessions menu.

 

 

 

Click on “Wired connection” and then on “Properties”.

 

ip-settings.png

 

Choose “Static IP address” , type your network information and click “OK”.

Shift to the “DNS” tab and click “Add” in DNS Servers and add your DNS server addresss.

 

 

Go back to “Connections” tab. Remove the tick next to “Wired Connection” and tick it again.

 

 

Installing Packages:

 

Ubuntu, by default, will come with just a few basic packages. However, a wide range and variety of packages can be installed easily, at any time later to make your system JANG.

Ubuntu packages simply ROCK!!

 

Here is what I would suggest, to utilize the best of the Ubuntu packages..

  • Synaptic Package ManagerOne of the coolest features of Ubuntu
  • Automatix – Graphical interface for automating the installation of the most commonly requested applications in Debian based Linux operating systems
  • Easyubuntu – A package manager with a selection of some useful programs and applications

For those of you who neither have internet connection in your PC nor have CD/DVD package repositories, click HERE

 

 

Lex and Yacc:

 

First of all, the “vi” editor in Ubuntu is not as user-friendly as the “vi” editor in Fedora. So, use the default text editor of Ubuntu, through the command “gedit”. You can also install “emacs” which is an advanced text editor. (You can also use “gedit” text editor in Fedora which is easier to use and which is what I would recommend)

 

If you haven’t installed the “build-essential”, “flex” and “bison” packages yet, install it from Synaptic Package Manager or give these commands at the terminal:

sudo apt-get install build-essential

sudo apt-get install flex

sudo apt-get install bison

 

Once they are installed, you can use the commands ‘lex’/’flex’ and ‘yacc’/’bison’.

 

A word about commands in the terminal: commands and arguments are CASE-SENSITIVE i.e. a folder named “roshan” is absolutely different from a folder name “Roshan”. This is the reason why, by default folder names are in lower-case and most users prefer it that way.

 

Though you can use the commands “cc”, “lex” and “yacc”, preferably, use the commands “gcc”, “flex” and “bison” since they are superior versions.

 

 

 

 

 

Running “.exe” files:

.exe” files won’t work in GNU/Linux systems by default. To run them, install “wine” from synaptic manager or give this command at the terminal:

sudo apt-get install wine

 

Wine can be used to execute most “.exe” files, though not all.

Now, lets install a software through wine.

 

Google Picasa version for linux doesn’t have web album uploading option as of now. They are still developing it. However, if you feel that web uploading is necessary(like me), then use “wine” to install the windows version of picasa.

 

http://picasa.google.com/linux

http://picasa.google.com/linux/faq.html

http://groups.google.com/group/Google-Labs-Picasa-for-Linux/browse_thread/thread/b97720fec4e8ed70

 

So, download the Windows version of picasa HERE

 

Now, suppose you have downloaded the file in your HOME folder(if not, change directory to that folder in which the .exe file is there before giving this command), give this command at the terminal:

wine picasaweb-current-setup.exe

Or you can double-click the downloaded file or right-click and “open with wine”.

You can also go to (Applications -> Accessories -> Wine File), browse for the .exe file and open it.

 

Install Picasa in the folder “/opt/Picasa2”

 

Now, to run picasa, double-click “Picasa2.exe” in “/opt/Picasa2” or right-click it and “open with wine”, or give this command at the terminal:

wine /opt/Picasa2/Picasa2.exe

 

 

Customizing Main Menu:

 

Now, that you have installed Picasa2, you would like to have a shortcut to it.

 

Go to (System -> Preferences -> Main Menu)

 

 

Go to “Applications -> Graphics” on the left-side menu.

Click on “New Item” on the right-side.

 

launcher-properties.png

 

Choose Type as “Application. Enter Name as “Picasa”, command as “wine /opt/Picasa2/Picasa2.exe” and add a comment if you want saying “The Photo Organizer from Google”. Click on the icon and select it from “/opt/Picasa2/runtime/favicon.ico”. Once done, click “Close”.

 

 

You can do a lot more customization in the Main Menu, by selecting and deselecting applications from the menus, by adding and deleting applications(right-click on applicatin and then “Delete”), by creating separators, adding more menus, etc.

 

Similarly, you can also customize the “System” menu.

 

Customizing Panels:

 

Right-click on the top panel.

 

 

Here, you get a whole range of options to customize it.

However, theres a much simpler way of adding shortcuts on the panel.

Say suppose you want to add “Search” shortcut on the top panel. Click-and-drag (Places -> Search for Files) and drop it onto the panel. You can place it onto the panel where ever you want and organize such shortcuts.

 

 

 

 

Mounting Drives:

 

All drives will be mounted automatically. Click HERE for more information on it.

 

 

Searching:

 

 

The usual search feature with a few good options.

 

 

Browsing:

 

 

 

You can use have a button or text-based location bar. The text-based location bar is useful to know the path of the drive, while buttons are most user friendly and can be used to jump drives easily, like say from “Madikeri” drive back to “DRV1VOL5” drive.

 

 

Checking Dataone Usage using Firefox:

 

Dataone Broadband users’ statistics could only be viewed in Internet Explorer, as support was provided only for that. However, in Ubuntu, you do not need Internet Explorer.

 

To check Dataone Broadband Usage statistics using Firefox, download any one of these 2 files.

 

File1

 

File2

 

For more information about this, click HERE

 

Once downloaded, open the download archive file and “Extract” it. Now, open the extracted folder. Open the “README” file in it and it will guide you.

May 13, 2007

A Mini Project Experience

Filed under: Software and Technology — Roshan @ 3:38 pm

The code will be uploaded shortly.

October 4, 2006

Study Habits

Filed under: The Magical Me — Roshan @ 11:06 am

I have got my own way of studying. This study habit is quite difficult to change at this stage of my life. It can probably be changed only in highly critical situations (not normal examinations😛 ). Otherwise, I stick to that habit always.

Most people tend to expect a lot from me in terms of studies, be it my parents, relatives, friends or teachers. They expect me to study on a regular basis i.e. daily or they think that I study daily (in case of friends and relatives). Only my parents and my close friends know my real study habits. Infact, I can decide to call my friend ‘close’ only if he knows my real study habits😉 . Still they expect a lot from me!!! To all others, if I say anything about my study habits, they would hardly believe it😦. Some would think I am lying; some would think I am showing-off; some would think I am playing a prank; some would think I am being humble.

Consider these:

  • There is a chair in a tank. I am sitting on the chair and sleeping. Water flows into the tank and the tank is slowly filled. I would not awake from my slumber until the water is up to my nose level; sometimes eye level or head level or over head level. Then I try to swim in the water and try to find a way out.
  • 6 runs are needed of 6 balls. I don’t even try to hit runs of the 1st 5 balls. In the last ball, I would try to hit a six!! (strictly hypothetical situation).

My study habits are something like that. I don’t study until the last day (very rarely last few days) for the examinations. When I start studying, I barely have time to study all that I need. I start studying at what I call break-neck speed; maximum amount of knowledge should be gained in minimum amount of time i.e. optimum utilization of time.

Now, after knowing this, some may think I mug-up or by-heart…. Maybe…. Sometimes, on the last day before examination, with no time, such drastic measures are necessary if you aren’t able to understand anything; something is better than nothing. However, I am pathetic at memorizing without understanding (I was terrible in social studies during my high school😦 ). On the other hand, I have always experienced better results with understanding first and memorizing that if necessary.

Most people wonder how it is possible to study well, with not even one day, a huge amount of syllabus!!!! I feel it is possible, for the examinations, as well as for knowledge. However, for knowledge, it would take more time than that for examinations. Only if the subject I am trying to study is alien completely i.e. I don’t know anything about it, then it may be difficult to do so and I will require more time or to do it in less time, I may have to mug-up or by-heart and in the end, suffer.

The credit for my good results in my II PUC and CET examinations should go to the tuitions I went to🙂 . Due to the tuitions, I was constantly in touch with those subjects and I had understood it quite well. Regular tests were being conducted there and I was trying to study for them sincerely, though the study habit remained the same (previous day study). Since I had already understood them, I took very little time to study them for the examinations. This ensured that I achieved good results in the main examinations, even though I can’t say that I gave my 100% or my best efforts (maybe considerably more effort than other examinations, but still not the best effort I can put in).

Now, in engineering, attending some classes and understanding something, helps for the internals; and studying for the internals as sincerely as possible helps for the semester examinations (The studying habit hasn’t changed).

The results of II PUC and engineering examinations aren’t comparable as the efforts I have put in aren’t comparable (tuitions and tests throughout the year makes a lot of difference). Though I would say that if I put in the same efforts for engineering examinations as I had put in for II PUC, the results would be almost the same, though not the same as paper-setting and evaluation matters too.

September 14, 2006

Life

Filed under: Flashes from My Pensieve — Roshan @ 11:44 am

Everything in life seems to be fine, in fact – great!! You take things as it comes. You think positively. You believe that there is a purpose for everything that happens in life and you feel – Alls well that ends well. You are in balance with your surroundings; you are in balance with yourself. It seems that you are making time run at your will; you seem to be ahead of time; you are enjoying every moment of your life. No problem seems to be overwhelming; every problem you have in life is minor and you have the confidence to overcome it – you are never daunted by that problem. You know that success and failure are a part of life; you are setting yourself minor targets, judging your own abilities well and trying to raise your own standards – all the time enjoying what are doing. The result – the failures seem minor to you; you are happy and satisfied with what you have, and what you have achieved. Peace seems to be in and around you. This may sound impractical, yet it is not – you are experiencing it… Life seems to be eternal bliss!!!

You are at a high in life; care-free, satisfied, happy. You are commanding yourself to go at a very high speed in life – ready to face any challenge in life – unfazed by anything that could possibly come, with the confidence that you have.

And then… life applies a disk brake…….. brakes have been applied before – yes, but this one however seems to beyond your capability, beyond your worst nightmares; you wish that some higher power will come to the rescue…. this brake is without a reason; illogical, impractical, an event which when analyzed in whatever possible way, doesn’t have something positive in it; something that doesn’t have a good ending, for sure…. the thing that you value the most in your life (more than your life) is lost, beyond recovery…. no longer do your beliefs have a meaning… your dreams are shattered… your ambition in life is of little importance; nothing in life seems to be important…. you no longer have the zeal for life…. life suddenly seems void….

Enormous pressure is applied upon your heart. You are not dead; though you feel it would have been better, if you were. You are suffocated; your heart in punctured; it feels extremely difficult to take a single breath. Your head seems to be occupied by a devil – a loser – a pessimist; cracked. Your vision is blurred; you don’t want to see anything anymore. Your life is scarred; a permanent scar. You don’t know where your life is headed. You don’t know whether you can ever be the same person you were before. You would have given anything else in exchange for this not to happen.

Can there ever be a reasonable, compromised solution to this??? Can you ever find peace again??? Can you remove all this from your mind???? Can you lead a normal life again????? The answer seems to be NO.

Death certainly seems a lot easier option.

It is at these times that you know the real value of the people who love you. They might not know your problem; they might not know the solution; they might not even know they are helping you, but they help you, directly or indirectly. You realize how invaluable they are in your life. You despise yourself for ever hurting them in your past. You decide to rectify yourself for any such past mistakes. You want to pay back, in kind and in full, to all those who love you; but the more you feel depressed, the more they get to know you are depressed, the more will they be depressed. So even though you can’t forget the most terrible happening in your life, you force it deep down in your heart. You conceal your feelings; and value their feelings…… you start living for them.

Still there is a void in your heart that can’t be filled; undoubtedly, life would have been better without that incident; life can never be as before, but you strive to make it better, for others and in return, for yourself, in some way.

The search for that eternal bliss achieved before is probably never going to end, but there is still hope… maybe you will come across a silver lining some day…. you wont give up…. you will keep searching…… even death cant stop it…..

Intro

Filed under: Flashes from My Pensieve — Roshan @ 11:36 am

Flashes from My Pensieve:

For a long time now, I have been thinking of starting a new series of posts – flashes from my pensieve. I wanted to try my hand at real writing. I wanted to express feelings in words. So I thought of my past, my present, my future, my dreams, events which people around me have experienced, even completely imaginary situations inspired by books, television or movies – a mixture of all these is what I am going to put in this category. It need not be completely about me or completely about anyone else, even if I write it as a first person experience.

Suggestions, criticism, etc are invited, especially since I am trying something different; I will be experimenting a lot.

PS: For those of you who haven’t read Harry Potter, Pensieve is an object which is used to store memories. It is something similar to a diary, but something really creative and much more advanced; an asset to have. The memory that is stored in a pensieve can be viewed later, at your will, and you can observe things in that memory which you have missed before i.e. you can view that memory in a different perspective, observe what others are doing around you, and view it from their perspective. Too complex to say – only J K Rowling can explain in detail. So read Harry Potter books😉

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